Louis Proyect: The Unrepentant Marxist

February 19, 2014

The gangster billionaire behind Ukraine’s president

Filed under: Ukraine — louisproyect @ 12:17 pm

Rinat Akhmetov … Ukraine's richest man.

Rihat Akmetov, Ukraine’s richest man, an “anti-imperialist”? Really?

In today’s NY Times, an article on street fighting in the Ukraine mentions in passing that the billionaire businessman Rihat Akhmetov, Ukraine’s richest man, was one of the president’s most stalwart supporters. Now that made me sit up and pay attention. If you read Global Research or the World Socialist Website, you’d tend to think that the troubles in the Ukraine are the result of a cabal by the Republican rightwing and the Ukrainian bourgeoisie to use the native fascists as a battering ram against Putin’s allies who are trying to preserve state-owned industry. This formula, needless to say, has been used incessantly for the past 30 years without much regard for the facts. As I have pointed out in a previous post, the picture is a lot more complicated.

In doing some investigation on Akhmetov, I discovered an intriguing article in the usually useless Nation Magazine that helps to debunk this mythology. It turns out that John McCain’s advisers played a key role in promoting the fortunes of Rihat Akhmetov and President Viktor Yanukovich, supposedly the guardian of state-owned property and the working class. But Mark Ames, the editor of The eXiled Online—a hard-hitting anti-oligarch publication that Matt Taibbi worked for at one time, and Ari Berman cut through the bullshit. The article begins with an analysis of how Oleg Deripaska, a Putin-backed aluminum tycoon in Russia, benefited from the advice he got from a consulting firm run by Rick Davis, John McCain’s campaign manager, and then proceeds to a discussion of the Ukraine:

If you’re wondering how Deripaska came to know Davis & Co., the answer lies in Russia’s next-door neighbor Ukraine.

In December 2004 Ukrainians poured into the streets of Kiev and other cities in the peaceful “Orange Revolution,” which overthrew a Putin-backed corrupt leader, Viktor Yanukovich, who had tried to steal the country’s presidential election that year (during which the pro-Western opposition candidate, Viktor Yushchenko, was poisoned and almost died). It was a serious blow to Russia’s geopolitical standing.

Putin’s Ukrainian proxies were also in trouble. Shortly after the Orange Revolution, a murder investigation was launched against the country’s richest oligarch, Rinat [sometimes referred to as Rihat] Akhmetov, Yanukovich’s main backer. Akhmetov fled the country. In exile in Monaco, he turned to Davis’s business partner, Paul Manafort–the second name in the lobbying firm Davis Manafort. An old GOP hand, Manafort, like Davis, had played a key role in Dole’s failed 1996 presidential run and had worked for dictators like Ferdinand Marcos of the Philippines and Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire. Akhmetov initially hired Manafort to improve the image of his beleaguered conglomerate, SCM, but soon Manafort’s role shifted to helping Yanukovich.

Manafort assembled a skilled team of political operatives in Ukraine and set about raising the popularity of Yanukovich’s pro-Russian Party of Regions, which Akhmetov financed. It was a very lucrative deal for Davis Manafort–and successful (according to Ukrainian investigative journalist Mustafa Nayem, Akhmetov paid Manafort upward of $3 million). Yanukovich’s disgraced party won a resounding victory in the March 2006 elections–and Akhmetov returned as the top Ukrainian oligarch. Thanks in part to the work of Davis Manafort, the Orange Revolution was essentially undone, putting Putin back in the chess match over Ukraine’s future.

This Akhmetov is quite a piece of work. The website Russian Mafia has quite a dossier on the billionaire. I especially enjoyed this tidbit:

Akhmetov’s first money most likely came from Sochi where Soviet elite came on vacation. Looking for new impressions secretaries, generals and company directors played a shell game with him, betting large sums of money.  The result was quite predictable.

In the late 1980s Bragin and his group were known as the shaddow [sic] owners of Donetsk. The perestroika, green light for private ownership, timid economic reforms and lifting of the iron curtain gave a chance to people like him to come out of the shadow. They began to invest money received from under-the-counter curency exchange and gamling into different entities; they bought computers and VCRs and brought them from the West; they opened shops selling tapes and equipment.

Source: Ukraina kriminalnaya, 13 January 2003

The Bragin referred to above is one Akhat Bragin, who was Akhmetov’s boss at one point. Gangsters battling over turf murdered Bragin in 1995. And don’t you just love how Akhmetov’s initial fortune came from Sochi? How fitting.

This tendency to reduce the struggle in the Ukraine to one pitting the stooges of George Soros, John McCain and western corporations against the “progressive” forces in the East trying to hold on to the legacy of the USSR, as if Putin’s job as a KGB officer had something to do with October 1917, is an insult to our intelligence. There are people on the left—putting it charitably—who are spinning this narrative as if their life depended on it. Who knows? Maybe Akhmetov is paying them off.

Before you find yourself succumbing to this version of the truth written by the same people who would make you believe that Bashar al-Assad is fighting to preserve Baathist socialism, this article by Anton Shekhovtsov, a Ukrainian studying at the University College in London, is worth your consideration:

There has been a huge tide of false, incorrect and bloated reports that exaggerate or over-emphasize the significance of the far right in the current Euromaidan protests in Ukraine. A Moscow-based journalist Alec Luhn writes in The Nation about “the Ukrainian nationalism at the heart of ‘Euromaidan’“, a leftist Seumas Milne argues in The Guardian that “in Ukraine, fascists, oligarchs and western expansion are at the heart of the crisis“, while a self-styled “independent geopolitical analyst” Eric Draitser, in his nauseatingly misleading piece for his own Stop Imperialism (later re-published by The Centre for Research on Globalization), even goes so far as to claim that “the violence on the streets of Ukraine […] is the latest example of the rise of the most insidious form of fascism that Europe has seen since the fall of the Third Reich”.

These and many other similar articles are all written according to the same pattern, and their aim is to discredit the Euromaidan protests as the manifestations of fascism, neo-Nazism or – at the very least – right-wing extremism.

Every single mass political mobilisation in Ukraine has been accompanied by the attempts to compromise the popular uprisings by associating them with the extreme right. And not only uprisings or protests, but big events too. For example, a few weeks before the start of the Euro-2012 football championship, British media hysterically accused Ukrainians of racism and xenophobia, and warned that any non-White person going to see football matches in Ukraine would definitely and immediately be killed. After the championship was over, no British media outlet apologised to the Ukrainian people when it turned out that not one racist incident involving Ukraine fans had been reported during the tournament.

The current campaign to defame the Euromaidan protests is so far the strongest attack on the Ukrainian civil society and democratic politics. Similar attacks took place in the past too, although their intensity never reached today’s level. During the “Orange revolution“, the Ukrainian semi-authoritarian regime under President Leonid Kuchma was also trying to defile democratic presidential candidate Viktor Yushchenko by associating him with the extreme right. And here is a story that links the past and the present.

I strongly recommend that you read the entire article.


  1. The Shekhovtsov article is excellent for many reasons, including his presentation on the background of the Center for Research on Globalization. This quote is particularly good:

    “The large network consisting of pro-Russian authors and institutions is a hard/extreme right breeding-ground of all kinds of conspiracy theories, Euroscepticism, racism and anti-democratic theories. Today, this is also one of the main sources of the articles, op-eds and statements that are one way or another trying to discredit the Euromaidan protests by associating them either with neo-Nazism or with the alleged US expansionism.”

    Racists and xenophobes going about their work by characterizing their opponents as racists and xenophobes! After reading this post and Shekhovtsov’s, I now believe that Putin’s methods of manipulating democratic electoral processes and street protests, as described in Shekhovtsov’s post, deserve more attention than they have gotten to date. Until his fall from power because of his weakness for underaged girls, Berlusconi was the left paradigm about how to implement fascistic policies within a superficial democratic framework through media mass manipulation. Authors of articles in the New Left Review and elsewhere warned us that Berlusconi’s Italy foreshadowed a dangerous rightward turn within the EU.

    Turns out that the left was, yet again, looking in the wrong direction, or, perhaps more accurately, relying upon a field of vision that was too narrow, one that failed to include Putin within its line of sight, Putin has always been more dangerous than Berlusconi, with the potential for the export of his practices much greater than Berlusconi’s. The relationships between Putin allies and US political figures and consultants, like Paul Manafort, John McCain and Rand Paul, suggest they are perfecting, through trial and error, practices that could be used to discredit and suppress social movements anywhere in the world.

    Comment by Richard Estes — February 19, 2014 @ 8:53 pm

  2. As with Thailand, choosing sides between rival pro-capitalist political gangs doesn’t sound like the way to go. It should come as no surprise that the Putin regime – who converted Nov. 7th, the day the Bolsheviks took power, into the Russian far right’s favorite rally day – plays footsie with the anti-EU section of the European Far Right.

    Capitalist regimes of every stripe breed Far Right politics. A sociopathic system will breed sociopaths. Imagine that.

    The statement, “The relationships between Putin allies and US political figures and consultants, like Paul Manafort, John McCain and Rand Paul, suggest they are perfecting, through trial and error, practices that could be used to discredit and suppress social movements anywhere in the world”, in its improbable connect-the-dots conspiracy theorizing, is just another example of what simple-minded Manichean juxtaposition politics leads to. Simply negating the negation doesn’t necessarily equal sublation. “Anti-“anti-imperialism”” just won’t make the grade, I’m afraid.

    Are there any working class-oriented organizations in Ukraine? That would be the place to start. Not with a politics promoting “civil society” utopias under capitalism, the system where, as Maggie Thatcher so correctly and hence so scandalously put it, somehow channeling Karl Polyani, “There is no such thing as society”.

    Comment by matthewrusso9 — February 20, 2014 @ 1:23 am

  3. “Capitalist regimes of every stripe breed Far Right politics. A sociopathic system will breed sociopaths. Imagine that.”

    Yes, but it is a matter of degree. Russian police attacked members of Pussy Riot with whips today. I don’t recall US or EU police attacking Public Enemy, Frank Zappa or Geore Carlin like that. Of course, in the US and the EU, such measures aren’t necessary, but I stand by my point that Russia and the Ukraine are proving grounds for methods that could be applied here, or anywhere else in the world, for that matter, if necessary. Putin and his xenophobic Russian chauvinism is paradoxically associated with US consultants and right wing, anti-Russian political figures, and there is a cross-pollenization that takes place as a result, much like what has transpired in the Middle East, where Israel has often aligned itself with right wing anti-semitic political figures in Egypt, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia. Unlike you, I don’t consider it it “connect-the-dots conspiracy thinking” to worry about the export of such practices to other parts of the world to suppress social movements.

    I’m not a fan of “civil society utopias”, either. It is an open question as to whether a successful rebellion in the Ukraine would open space for the emergence of “working class oriented organizations”. But we already know that the prospects for such an emergence under Putin and his Ukrainian allies are nil.

    Comment by Richard Estes — February 20, 2014 @ 1:56 am

  4. Well an far right militia claiming the Cossack named attached some people who may or may not be still part of Pussy Riot or may just building a career using the old Pussy riot name. I have no doubt that one of the possibilities though is that Putin’s goons fed the “Cossacks” the details of where they were.
    Anyone on the left unaware that the current government of Ukraine is bunch of corrupt gangsters, many ex Stalinist, would be pretty badly informed. That many of the opposition are identical is just as well documented, It is not a matter of degree, Richard we don’t need the “lesser evil” argument imported in Ukrainian politics, it does not fit there and I’m sure you reject it in your country.
    What is certain is that one side want to align to Russia and the other to the “west”, neither strategy offers anything to the working class in the long term. Of course closer ties to Europe may seem like an opening for the young middle class to head west to jobs in the EC, but the EC offers only the Greek solution to the workers.
    What worries me is that while polls show the population split, with probably more for the pro-west side at the start, as Ukrainian nationalism come to the fore the more non Ukrainians abandon the pro-west side and look to Russia for protection. Balkanization is a real threat. Ukrainian nationalists come in all shapes and colors from open Nazis to people who appear to be almost anarchists however they all appear to be willing to follow the lead (for now) of Yulia Tymoshenko. In the past this has meant her party has galvanized support by talking of having only one official language in the country, ethnic domination over the variety of minorities in the country.
    Surely the role of revolutionaries anywhere is to have no truck with mass movements that at their heart are chauvinistic (no I’m not stupid, the movement is not fascist) and say workers should reject all the bosses parties and put class unity before false notions of national chauvinism be it Ukrainian or Russian, as I’m sure that card will be paid.
    And just to remind people who draw hope from the sign of the odd black flag among the protesters, the last time Ukrainian anarchists became a mass movement they were skinning Bolshevik cadre alive because they were all Jews. Nationalism is at the core of the pro-west parties, it may not be extreme yet but things change rapidly during confrontations and there is no “left” within the movement. For those outside of Ukraine mobs attacking a gangster government may appear to be in some way liberating it can equally be as bad as the gangsters in power. And those who claim to Pussy Riot/are Pussy Riot (or the dreadful Femen) supporting them certainly influences me not one jot; though presumably Jolie and Madonna will front some Obama exercise in Cold War political opportunism if asked.

    Comment by Harry Monro — February 20, 2014 @ 5:17 pm

  5. “That many of the opposition are identical is just as well documented, It is not a matter of degree, Richard we don’t need the “lesser evil” argument imported in Ukrainian politics, it does not fit there and I’m sure you reject it in your country.”

    It’s not really a “lesser evil” argument. Instead, it is about whether the destruction of the repressive apparatus of the current regime would create opportunities for workers and leftists in its wake. Of course, there’s no guarantee that it would happen, just a possibility that doesn’t exist under the current government. Just as there is an alternative possibility that it could intensify nationalist conflict as you say. Both could happen simultaneously.

    But what we think doesn’t matter nearly as much as the people of the Ukraine think, and they seem willing to dive into this historical transformation with all the risks that it entails. So, it might be better for leftists outside the Ukraine to think about how the xenophobic horrors of the past can be prevented instead of implicitly supporting Putin by perpetually maligning the opponents of his Ukrainian governmental allies as nazis and anti-semities (I’m referring to those criticized by Louis and Shekhotsov, not you and me). Otherwise, we end up dismissing the historical agency of the Ukrainian people by considering them to be incorrigible anti-semites and xenophobes.

    Comment by Richard Estes — February 20, 2014 @ 5:45 pm

  6. I am with you as far as the “tendency to reduce the struggle in the Ukraine to one pitting the stooges of George Soros, John McCain and western corporations against the “progressive” forces in the East trying to hold on to the legacy of the USSR” part goes, but the fact of the matter is that forces that are in the van guard at this moment are indeed rather reactionary and chauvinistic. I am not taking my cues from Chessudovsky et al, but from left journalists like Denis Denisov publishing at Rabkor and the Ukrainian Marxist group Borot’ba amongst others. Leaders of the now prominent Pravyy Sektor group (and mind you this is an organization that has denounced Svoboda – a political party that consciously mimics France’s National Front – as too liberal and conformist) have given interviews to the local papers in which they claim that their movement’s goals, aside from overthrowing Yanu and his clan, are to restore traditional Ukrainian values and Christianity, protect the traditional family (from homosexuality), and increase Ukraine’s geopolitical power (e.g. http://tinyurl.com/ok6p7bf). While I support the Ukrainian people’s struggle against the oligarchic system and Russian control/meddling, I fear that the revolution is shaping up to look a lot like Iran’s in 1979. I hope for the best, but the left has been entirely sidelined (in the early days of the Maidan, Rabkor reportedly frequently on attacks on leftist activists and groups by right-wingers and nationalists until the former were all but gone),..

    Comment by dermokrat — February 20, 2014 @ 6:38 pm

  7. The many protestors with rifles are probably nothing more than fascist street gangs. The West has a long history of employing these sorts when it works to their favor.

    Imagine what would happen to armed protestors in the U.S. and compare.

    Comment by jeff — February 21, 2014 @ 4:52 am

  8. But Richard I don’t think all of the people of the Ukraine ever back this movement, even at its strongest maybe 40% didn’t back it and that is now more like 50%. Unfortunately as an outsider I do not have enough sources to say whether the split is predominately about language/ethnicity or how much class plays its part. As the opposition now sit back to discuss the latest government offer, with their Polish and French government advisers we can’t see which way thing will go. The ultra chauvinists among the oppositionists may prefer to just destabilize the country. But Richard do you think the French and Polish government are seeking a solution to open up possibilities of future class struggle. Better still is there anything in the program of the opposition that makes you think they will do so? On another tack I’d suggest the Catholic elements in the opposition bode badly for all Ukrainian women, look at their Polish allies policies.
    Refusing to back this movement, led by gangsters and chauvinists is not implicitly supporting Putin it can be about trying to see the way forward for independent class politics, just as I never saw the only way forward in Egypt as the coup loomed, was to back either the army or the Muslim Brotherhood. What of course must be tremendously difficult and dangerous for people in Ukraine to do, is relatively easy for us in the “west” surely. Neither Washington (or in this case Paris) or Moscow comrades.

    Comment by Harry Monro — February 21, 2014 @ 9:09 am

  9. In the 1960s the Marcyites used to howl “Ho, Ho, Ho Chi Minh! NLF is gonna win!” The Spartacist League was a bit more refined and put out a pamphlet about Vietnamese Trotskyists being assassinated under the orders of Uncle Ho. But it was in the nature of the situation that one either came out sounding like you really supported Ho Chi Minh, the NLF and North Vietnam, or else you supported Uncle Sam. When someone like Michael Harrington tried to find the most optimally refined way of putting the arguments, he just came out smelling like a CIA agent.

    That seems to be the same dynamic at play here now. The WSWS has stated clearly that they do not support Putin, but obviously there main hostility is at the NATO powers who are hoping to use this mess as a springboard. So they get accused of being Putin-supporters.

    The conflict in Ukraine has clearly divided along east-west lines. Maybe Ukraine should be broken up the way that Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were. It is at least theoretically possible that this might allow the distinction between true reactionaries and their fellow-travelers in west Ukraine to emerge more clearly. But at the present time the best slogan here in the US is just “NATO Hands Off!”

    Comment by PatrickSMcNally — February 22, 2014 @ 1:40 pm

  10. The opposition are involved with ‘Oligarchs’ too, not to mention Ukrainian fascists.

    Amongst the signatories to the abortive deal to form a Coalition Government in Ukraine was Oleh Tyahnybok from the far-right Svoboda Party. In 2004, the same Tyahnybok was expelled from the “Our Ukraine” parliamentary faction, after giving an anti-Russian, anti-Semitic speech at the gravesite of a commander of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, a force that had a history of collaboration with Nazi Germany.*

    The German, French and Polish foreign ministers showed no qualms about signing an agreement with Svoboda, although the Russian observer present declined. The deal was immediately rejected by the “Right Sector”, whose activists were involved in the subsequent takeover of the Presidential palace. Elsewhere in the country, “Right Sector” activists have been busy tearing down statues of Lenin (ironically, one of the greatest defenders of Ukrainian self-determination)

    Both Yanukovich and leading figures in the opposition, like Yulia Tymoshenko have a history of involvement in skimming state assets.
    The Yanukovich trail is examined in detail here:-
    Such links made the Yanukovich regime very vulnerable to populist hostility and are an unstable basis upon which to build political support; many of the Oligarchs are now changing sides and following their money to London.

    But the idea that the rightist opposition are really opposed to the Oligarchs is belied by this statement, made by Dmytro Yarosh, “leader” of the Right Sector, on February 20th.

    Addressing the “Oligarchs”, he said:-

    “ … you have an opportunity to change people’s attitude and stand by their side to avoid further bloodshed in Ukraine. We all understand that you have the decisive economic leverage on Yanukovych, we understand that if he loses your support he will be forced to stop the bloodshed as financing is the only thing that today lets Yanukovych to fight the Ukrainian people.
    We appeal to you to stop any support of those in power in Ukraine and to announce a total economic and psychological boycott with the next requirements to Yanukovych:”

    Yarosh called for the:
    “creation of a new government coordinated by an authoritative and not politicized person; the government should be formed of the best professionals that should not have political ambitions”

    Nor does Yulia Tymoshenko represent an alternative.
    Her imprisonment was seen by EU officials as a direct blow against the Ukraine-EU Association agreement.
    Along with Arseniy Yatsenyuk of the Fatherland Party, she would be their favoured candidate for President.
    But before she began her public campaigns against corruption, Tymoshenko was one of the richest people in the country and still has convictions for her dealings in imported Russian Gas.

    When she was driven into Kiev yesterday, she received a lukewarm reception from the activists who had been at the forefront of street fighting, who feared that she might be used to hijack their uprising.

    It’s their attitudes towards the EU Accession agreement that have been the main difference between Yanukovich and the opposition.

    In fact, what the EU is offering Ukraine is worse than what the Russian government was promising – $15 billion in bonds and cheap natural gas supplies.

    The EU has offered inadequate loans with strings attached:-

    * that the EU would gain open entry into the Ukrainian market;
    * that the government impose austerity on the Ukrainian workers;
    * that Ukraine be incorporated into the NATO military alliance.

    Ukraine wasn’t even being offered full EU membership in return.
    But the entrepreneurs and officialdom in Western Ukraine, an area traditionally hostile to Russian influence, represent a solid basis of support for the pro-Europe, anti Russian elements. They have helped create a cross-class nationalist movement, including sections of the far right.

    The Police in Lviv went over to the opposition en-masse and 50 of them travelled to Kiev to appear on the platform at Independence Square. But there is no sign of involvement in the protests by the organised working class, many of whom live in the big industrial cities of Eastern Ukraine.
    Besides the language question, they must be well aware of what EU austerity policies will mean for their jobs.
    The current situation in Bosnia (almost entirely un-reported in the Western media) shows where it’s all likely to lead.

    What’s needed now is a genuine working class opposition, which stands for a unitary and independent Socialist Ukraine.

    *Over 50% of the UPA were police officers from Western Ukraine, some of whom had infiltrated the German auxiliary police.
    Their civilian wing in OUN-B, led by Stepan Bandera, collaborated with the Nazi occupation of the Ukraine.
    In a statement issued in Lviv in June 1941, Bandera declared Ukrainian Independence promising to work:
    ” closely with the National-Socialist Greater Germany, under the leadership of its leader Adolf Hitler which is forming a new order in Europe and the world and is helping the Ukrainian People to free itself from Moscovite occupation”
    Sections of OUN and the UPA assisted the SS ‘Einsatz’ groups, which rounded up Galician Jews for execution in the wake of the invading Wermacht forces.

    The Nazis weren’t impressed with puppets who declared independence; Bandera was arrested and held as a pawn until the end of the war.

    In 1943, as German forces began to disintegrate, the UPA launched a struggle for Ukrainian Independence. They were responsible for the ethnic cleansing of over 50,000 Poles from Western Ukraine and carried out a protracted guerilla war against the returning Soviet administration.

    After the war, Bandera continued to live in Munich, from where his supporters were dispatched to the Ukraine via CIA and MI6 networks.
    He was assassinated by the KGB in 1959.

    Comment by prianikoff — February 23, 2014 @ 1:16 pm

  11. The opposition are involved with ‘Oligarchs’ too, not to mention Ukrainian fascists.

    A predictable response from Gallowayland.

    Comment by louisproyect — February 23, 2014 @ 1:20 pm

  12. re.12
    You’re totally mistaken, I’ve never had any connection to either “Respect”, or to George Galloway.
    Nor does sending comments to your blog mean I politically support you.
    But what I wrote happens to be true.

    Comment by prianikoff — February 23, 2014 @ 2:17 pm

  13. Prianakoff, Gallowayland is just shorthand for the kind of politics that Trotsky argued against in “Learn to Think”.

    Comment by louisproyect — February 23, 2014 @ 2:22 pm

  14. No amount of leftist pablum can change the fact that Ukraine is bankrupt. They can’t pay their gas bills even at a 30% discount. They have no products anyone will buy except Russia, who they just pissed off. I don’t see any real world strategies coming from the Left. Ukraine has to import energy and technology to exist, therefore they have to be deal with international capital, they have to deal with geopolitics.

    Comment by jeff — February 23, 2014 @ 3:18 pm

  15. Russian police attacked members of Pussy Riot with whips today.

    Yeah, I just remember a student at UC Davis getting pepper sprayed in the face for sitting on the ground.

    Cops in the U.S. are near the worst of any developed country.

    Comment by jeff — February 23, 2014 @ 3:25 pm

  16. Yanukovych’s system and backers were capitalists.
    Nonetheless, it is worth noting how the two “sides”‘ supporters relate to V.I.:


    Comment by H. Smith — February 24, 2014 @ 2:58 am

  17. BBC report on people guarding Lenin’s statue in Kharkov:

    Comment by H. Smith — February 24, 2014 @ 2:59 am

  18. As if Lenin monuments have something to do with socialism.

    Comment by louisproyect — February 24, 2014 @ 3:05 am

  19. […] comeback voor terug. Dat was in 2006. De aanwijzingen in die richting zijn op een rijtje gezet in “The gangster billionaire behind Ukraine ‘s president” van Louis Proyect. Niet alleen de oppositie kreeg steun uit de VS. DE regering kreeg die ook. […]

    Pingback by Oekraïene, fascisme, antifascisme, ‘antifascisme’ (3): steun aan Rusland is ook geen optie | Ravotr — August 17, 2014 @ 4:18 pm

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